How are constants declared in JavaScript?

You could use the const keyword like so.

const pi = 3.14;
document.writeln("pi is roughly"   pi   ".");

But watch out!  The MDN’s JavaScript Reference says that

const is a Mozilla-specific extension.

Constants are actually not part of the JavaScript specification and we’ll have to roll our own solution.  We could use the module pattern and create accessor functions to our constant data like this.

var CONSTANTS = (function() {
  var private = {
    'PI' : '3.14',

  return {
    get: function(name) { return private[name]; }

alert('PI: '   CONSTANTS.get('PI'));

This prevents write access to our data and allows read access through a bit of extra syntax. Another method is to simply use a convention such as ALL CAPS to define constants. Most programmers know this convention and will respect it.

var PI = 3.14;

The solution I use is to place all constants in an object literal.

  pi : 3.14

This strikes me as a good compromise between the ALL CAPS convention and the over engineered module pattern solution.  What do you think?