Metrics-Driven Development is an emerging term developing from the practices of continuous integration, continuous delivery, dev ops, and agile software methodologies. This article serves to define what metrics-driven development is, why it is useful, and how to use it to drive software changes.
Let’s start with a definition of metrics-driven development.
- Metrics-Driven Development (MDD)
- The use of real-time metrics to drive rapid, precise, and granular software iterations.
This definition is simple and straightforward, but does leave room for interpretation. Let’s dive deeper and break the definition down, bit-by-bit.
- To be effective, metrics must be viewable by developers and operations staff in close to real-time. Why? Real-time metrics provide an immediate view of the effect of software changes to production systems — and understanding the effects of software changes in production is one of the key benefits for employing metrics-driven development.
- Changes to production software can be made rapidly to affect changes in one or more metrics. Combining rapid deployment with real-time metrics provides a powerful force for iterating production software towards performance and stability goals.
- Changes to production software can precisely change a given metric in a target direction. By being able to make precise changes to a metric, the development team can focus on targeting a particular metric of interest with each software change.
- Changes to production software can target metrics at a granular level. Individual development teams should be able to deploy changes to production software that target individual metrics.
This definition and its individual components emphasizes the need for combining real-time metric collection and reporting with the ability to make small, rapid software changes. These capabilities provide two benefits. First, they allow you to make software development decisions based on real-world production data. Second, they provide a means of affecting measurably beneficial changes to the software with each deployment. Together, metrics-driven development helps developers and businesses make better decisions by including metrics as an integral part of the development process.
MDD is a fundamentally iterative process. Although the principles and practices outlined in this article can be applied directly, they are especially powerful when used with the enabling technologies described in this section.
Taken as a whole, these prerequisites allow developers to quickly and safely deploy changes to production and control the set of users exposed to software changes. In this environment, MDD allows you to use metric data to drive each individual software iteration.
Foremost, you need an architecture for collecting metrics from running application data and transmitting it to a data collection point. You also need a user interface for querying and visualizing data.
In practice today, this typically means deploying a data collection library like Coda Hale’s Metrics with your application, and using an aggregation system like fluentd to push data to collection points. At collection points, data is ingested into a time-series database like graphite or InfluxDB. A user interface like Grafana is used to visualize metrics and provide dashboards.
Ultimately, your team or organizations requirements will dictate the specific technologies used. Providing specific guidance is outside the scope of this document.
Continuous integration (CI) is the practice of frequently integrating changes from multiple members of each team. Each integration is verified automatically and errors are detected as quickly as possible. CI makes it possible to easily deploy cohesive working software.
Continuous delivery (CD) is the practice of building software that can be deployed at any time. The priority is in keeping software working and deployable at all times. This allows teams to ship code to production at any moment, adding and removing metrics as necessary.
Feature flagging is a powerful technique allowing teams to modify system behaviour at runtime without changing code. The toggle can be turned “on” or “off” to expose users to new functionality. These users act as a test-bed for new code and by observing the metrics from these new users, the development team can make better decisions about the code being released.
Metrics-Driven Development Principles
A principle is a fundamental truth that serves as the foundation for a system of belief. What follows are the fundamental truths according to metrics-driven development. These truths guide the metrics-driven development process and help to frame the discussion of metrics as they apply to software development.
Production is unique
The first principle guiding metrics-driven development is that your production environment is unique. This is necessarily true; you cannot exactly replicate your production environment for local development, testing, or staging. You must accept that production is different.
Why is production different? Foremost, the data. The amount and variety of data in production typically dwarves that of any testing environment. Also, as is typical in production workloads, some data may have been changed (either accidentally or intentionally during crisis management) and that change has not been accurately replicated in any testing environment; your development process needs to account for this possibility. Second, the scale. Typically, testing software changes works by deploying a single instance of your software to a single virtual machine or container. Then, on production that change is deployed to multiple virtual machines or containers and interacts with clusters of other services. The book Release It! describes this problem as Unbalanced Capacities and these imbalances in production typically cannot be replicated locally.
More generally, there will always be edge cases in production data, hardware, or environment that cannot feasibly be replicated during testing. Production is unique.
Tests are not enough
Testing is not enough to uncover potential production bugs. You need to do more than ensure that software changes pass tests, you need to verify that software changes correctly affect production behaviour. By using metrics and monitoring your team can accurately verify that a software change is working as expected.
Note that this does not mean tests are not valuable — they are absolutely essential for preventing regressions and validating your assumptions. Just be aware that unit tests can only capture the scenarios that you are already aware or that surface in QA. Since production is unique, you will not be able to imagine every possible scenario that should go into your unit tests.
Your mental model is not complete
In production software systems, there is a gap between perception and reality. Our perception is the code that we write and how we expect it to behave, our reality is what happens when that code is actually run on production. For example, we may have a perception about why a certain operation is a bottleneck in the credit card processing workflow, but reality requires profiling and measuring the current workflow to determine the exact location of the bottleneck.
Coda Hale calls this the “gap” between perception and reality, cautioning us to “mind the gap”.
Code has no value
Your job is not to write code; your job is to create value. Think about it. No sane employer will pay a software engineer to write code, print it out, and frame it to hang on a wall. That same code only has value when it is running on production and being used by real users.
So what provides business value? A new feature, improving an existing feature, fixing bugs, improving performance, or reducing cost, to name a few. All of these things only provide value when the code that implements them is run, not when they are written. It follows that to provide the most value to the business, an engineer needs to know as much as possible about how the code behaves while it is running. Metrics are typically the only way this is possible.
If you can’t measure it, you can’t manage it (or improve it)
Originally attributed to Dr. Edwards Deming, for managing people and business processes, the quote “If you can’t measure it, you can’t manage it” applies equally well to managing software systems. If users start to complain about your site being “slow”, as an engineer you will need to have some sort of understanding of what “slow” actually means. This implies measuring it, so that you can improve it. If you have a metric tracking the latency of user requests, you can make targeted improvements to this metric through iterative software changes.
You can’t measure everything
This article is about metrics and metrics-driven development. So naturally, I am bullish about adding metrics to the software development process. However, be mindful that quantity of metrics does not equal quality — you will need to strike the right balance of metrics in your system.
Unneeded metrics place additional resource constraints on the metrics pipeline itself, and can make relevant metrics more difficult to locate and interact with. This typically means purging and deleting metrics that are no longer valuable to you. Treat metrics curation as requirement of metrics-driven development.
Metrics-Driven Development Practices
Practices are the applications of principles stated in a context-dependent way. In our case, we apply the principles of metrics-driven development to the task of software development. To that end, we treat measurement and instrumentation as a software development practice integrated within the regular software development life cycle and apply the metrics-driven development principles to that context.
Instrumentation as code
Developers typically have the best mental model of how an application is meant to behave in production. It therefore makes sense to make instrumentation an integral part of the software development process.
Given that developers can create targeted instrumentation in the application code itself, instrumentation becomes a required deliverable for every new feature or fix. When writing new code, the developer is able to form a hypothesis about its behavior in production; the measurements placed in the code are a means for the developer to prove or disprove their hypothesis.
Single source of truth
Metrics collected during operations should be stored in a common repository, in a common format, and with a common interface for visualization, alerting, and analysis. This allows developers or operations staff to easily correlate metrics between systems and across all layers of the application stack.
The metrics platform must be timely, comprehensive, and intuitive so that everyone instinctively relies on it as their preferred resource to reason about the production environment.
Alert on observations
An effective metrics-driven development process allows for alerts to trigger based on metric values. This allows developers and operations staff to effectively target affected systems by honing in on metrics showing signs of problems. Once isolated, the same set of metrics can confirm that any response has successfully resolved the issue.
It’s critical that alerts are triggered off of the same dataset used for visualization since disparate systems introduce the potential confusion and error. Any lack of certainty during incident response adds additional stress and increases the likelihood of human error.
Use the scientific method
By deploying a change and measuring its effects, developers and operations gain confidence that any software change is reliable, performant, and affects the metric of interest, confirming any hypothesis.
The Metrics-Driven Development Process
Now, how do we follow the principles and practices outlined here? By using the Metrics-Driven Development Process using the OODA loop, devised by John Boyd.
The phrase OODA loop refers to the decision cycle of observe, orient, decide, and act, developed by military strategist and United States Air Force Colonel John Boyd. Boyd applied the concept to the combat operations process, often at the strategic level in military operations. It is now also often applied to understand commercial operations and learning processes. The approach favors agility over raw power in dealing with human opponents in any endeavor.
The following example of the OODA loop is adapted from Coda Hale’s Metrics, Metrics Everywhere talk.
All decisions are based on observations of an evolving situation.
You have a question:
What is the 99% latency of our autocomplete service right now?
You look at current measurements:
During the orientation phase, we examine how an observation relates to our previous experiences.
You have a question:
How does this compare to other parts of our system, both currently and historically?
You look at historical metrics:
It’s way slower.
Given the observation and our experience, we can decide on the next action to take.
You have a question:
Should we make the autocomplete service faster? Or should we add a new feature?
You now have the knowledge to make an informed decision:
Let’s make it faster.
You’ve made a decision, now act. Write some code, deploy it, and measure the results.
Repeat the loop.
By using the metrics-driven development process you improve the mental model of the code so that you can make better decisions. Adopting MDD allows you to monitor metrics for current problems, aggregate them for historical perspective, and ultimately use our improved mental model to generate more business value.