There and Back Again: The Unexpected Journey of a Request
How Does DNS Work?
How Does WebRTC Work?
To deliver real-time communication (RTC) from browser to browser requires a lot of technologies that work well together: audio and video processing, application and networking APIs, and additional network protocols that for real-time streaming. The end result is WebRTC — over a dozen different standards for the application protocols and browser APIs that enable real-time communication for the web.[Read More]
How Does LTE Work?
How Does WiFi Work?
How Does Ethernet Work?
Wireless Networks and Shannon’s Law
How Does UDP Work?
The User Datagram Protocol (UDP), first described in 1980 by RFC 768, offers a minimal set of functionality: there is no guarantee of message delivery, no guarantee of message order, no congestion avoidance, and no tracking of connection state. In fact, UDP is often referred to as the null protocol, because it offers little functionality not already included in the IP layer.[Read More]
How Does TCP Work?
The transmission control protocol (TCP) does one job very well — it creates an abstraction that makes an unreliable channel look like a reliable network. For applications built over an unreliable network like the Internet, TCP is a godsend that hides a lot of the inherent complexity in building networked applications. A laundry list of TCP features that application developers rely on every day includes: retransmission of lost data, in-order data delivery, data integrity, and congestion control. This article provides an introduction TCP, describing the structure of TCP segments, how TCP connections are established, and the algorithms that govern the flow of data between senders and receivers.[Read More]