How Does LTE Work?

There is no one-size-fits-all cellular network used across the world, and trying to understand how cellular technology works across all the different uses cases is difficult, if not impossible, in a short blog post. So, rather than trying to understand every possible standard, this article will focus solely on LTE networks. Fortunately, competing standards and implementations are roughly similar and we can extrapolate any lessons learned about LTE to other cellular networks without much difficulty. [Read More]

How Does WiFi Work?

WiFi, technically specified in the IEEE 802.11 set of standards, is one of the most widely deployed wireless standards in the world. Chance are the device you are using to read this article has is WiFi enabled. WiFi is a straightforward extension of Ethernet, with some slight adaptations for using radio instead of copper wire as the communication channel. Like Ethernet, WiFi has no central process that controls which device is allowed to transmit data at any point in time. [Read More]

How Does Ethernet Work?

Ethernet is a technology developed a Xerox PARC in 1973 and 1974 to support local area networking. It has since been expanded to include a whole family of technologies that support various network architectures and topologies as part of the IEEE 802.3 working group dedicated to supporting networking using physical connections and devices (i.e. not wireless). Ethernet was built with the assumption that all computers on a network use a shared communication channel. [Read More]

Wireless Networks and Shannon’s Law

All wireless networks (Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, 3G, LTE, etc.) operate using radio signals. Because they operate over the radio, all communication methods have a maximum channel capacity, regardless of technology. This maximum capacity was which is determined by the same underlying principles of information theory developed by Claude Shannon during World War II, known as Shannon-Hartley theorem or Shannon’s Law. Shannon’s Law states that This capacity relationship can be stated as: [Read More]

How Does UDP Work?

The User Datagram Protocol (UDP), first described in 1980 by RFC 768, offers a minimal set of functionality: there is no guarantee of message delivery, no guarantee of message order, no congestion avoidance, and no tracking of connection state. In fact, UDP is often referred to as the null protocol, because it offers little functionality not already included in the IP layer.

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How Does TCP Work?

The transmission control protocol (TCP) does one job very well — it creates an abstraction that makes an unreliable channel look like a reliable network. For applications built over an unreliable network like the Internet, TCP is a godsend that hides a lot of the inherent complexity in building networked applications. A laundry list of TCP features that application developers rely on every day includes: retransmission of lost data, in-order data delivery, data integrity, and congestion control. This article provides an introduction TCP, describing the structure of TCP segments, how TCP connections are established, and the algorithms that govern the flow of data between senders and receivers.

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How Do Websockets Work?

A WebSocket is a persistent connection between a client and server. WebSockets provide a bidirectional, full-duplex communications channel that operates over HTTP through a single TCP/IP socket connection. At its core, the WebSocket protocol facilitates message passing between a client and server. This article provides an introduction to the WebSocket protocol, including what problem WebSockets solve, and an overview of how WebSockets are described at the protocol level.

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How Does HTTP/2 Work?

Note: To make this easier to read (and write), h1 may be used in place of HTTP/1, and h2 may used in place of HTTP/2.


HTTP/1 has a long and storied history. Originally developed as a sixty page specification documented in RFC 1945, it was designed to handle text-based pages that leverage hypermedia to connect documents to each other. Typical web pages would kilobytes of data. For example, the first web page was a simple text file with web links to other text documents. Now, the web is made up of media-rich sites containing images, scripts, stylesheets, fonts, and more. The size of a typical web page is measured in megabytes rather than kilobytes, and the number of requests required to assemble a full page can be over one hundred. The reality of how web pages are built today does not match the reality that HTTP/1 was designed to support.

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A Guide to the Kubernetes Networking Model

Kubernetes was built to run distributed systems over a cluster of machines. The very nature of distributed systems makes networking a central and necessary component of Kubernetes deployment, and understanding the Kubernetes networking model will allow you to correctly run, monitor and troubleshoot your applications running on Kubernetes. Networking is a vast space with a lot of mature technologies. For people unfamiliar with the landscape, this can be uncomfortable because most people have existing preconceived notions about networking, and there are a lot of both new and old concepts to understand and fit together into a coherent whole. [Read More]